Purnendu Mandal Artist
Purnendu Mandal

Name: Mr. PURNENDU MANDAL
Born: 10th January, 1980

Educational Qualification :
2003 Bachelor Degree in Visual Arts (B.V.A) from Government College of Art & Craft, Calcutta University, Kolkata

Solo Exhibitions :

2020 Online Solo Show Presents by National Art Academy, Raigarh, C.G
2019 International Solo Show by Art Revolution Taipei at World Trade Centre, Taiwan
2018 Triveni Art Gallery, Triveni Kala Sangam, New Delhi
2017 Affordable Art Fair, F1 Pit Building, Singapore
2017 Open Palm Court Gallery, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi
2017 Jehangir Art Gallery (A.C – III), Mumbai (14 to 20 March)
2016 Global Art Fair, World Trade Centre, Cuffe Parade, Mumbai
2016 Karnataka Chitrakala Parishath, Bangalore
2016 Academy of Fine Arts, Kolkata
2016 Global Art Fair, The Oberoi Hotel, Business Bay, Dubai , UAE
2015 Karnataka Chitrakala Parishath, Bangalore
2015 Kamalnayan Bajaj Art Gallery, Mumbai
2015 Triveni Art Gallery, Triveni Kala Sangam, New Delhi
2015 All India Fine Arts & Crafts Society, New Delhi
2014 Taj Bengal Hotel (5 star), Kolkata
2014 Academy of Fine Arts, Kolkata
2014 Lalit kala Akademi (National Academy of Art), New Delhi
2014 Kamalnayan Bajaj Art Gallery, Mumbai
2013 Chemould Art Gallery, Kolkata
2012 Jehangir Art Gallery (A.C – III), Mumbai
2007 Nehru Centre Art Gallery (A.C), Mumbai
2007 The Art Entrance Gallery, Mumbai
2006 Kamalnayan Bajaj Art Gallery, Mumbai
2006 The Art Entrance Gallery, Mumbai
2004 Nehru Centre Art Gallery, Mumbai
2004 Ramkinkar Baije Art Gallery, Malda, West Bengal

International Exhibitions :

2020 International Art Exhibition at X- Power Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan
2019 International Art Exhibition at X- Power Art Gallery, Taipei, Taiwan
2019 International Artist Gallery Grand Award and Exhibition by Art Revolution Taipei, Taiwan
2019 Preview Show at Get Art Museum, Art Revolution Taipei, Taiwan
2018 International Artist Grand Prize Competition by Art Revolution Taipei, Taiwan
2018 World Art Dubai, World Trade Centre, by Rare Mandi Art Gallery, Dubai , UAE
2018 Index Design Series, World Trade Centre, Dubai , UAE
2018 Preview Show at Get Art Museum, Art Revolution Taipei, Taiwan
2018 International Water Colour Society, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2017 Affordable Art Fair, F 1 Pit Building, Singapore
2017 World Art Dubai, World Trade Centre, Dubai , UAE
2016 Global Art Fair, The Oberoi Hotel, Business Bay, Dubai , UAE
2016 Art Hub Gallery, Abu Dhabi , UAE
2015 Dot Art Gallery, Bangkok – Thailand
2015 New Jersey Convention & Expo Centre, 97 Sunfield Ave, Edison NJ – USA
2015 5th International Art Festival at Nepal Art Council, Kathmandu – Nepal
2014 The Nehru Centre, (Embassy of India), London- UK
2014 Arterie Fine Arts Gallery, Chicago – USA
2013 Roa Art Gallery, Royal Opera Arcade, London- UK
2006 International Exhibition at World Trade Centre, Jakarta – Indonesia

National Level Exhibitions :

2019 8th India Art Festival Exhibition by Dolna the Movement, Nehru Centre, Worli, Mumbai
2018 4th India Art Festival Exhibition by Rhythm Art Gallery at Thygraj Stadium, New Delhi
2018 7th India Art Festival Participating by Studio 3, Nehru Centre, Worli, Mumbai
2017 All India Exhibition – Art Insignia at Rangayan Gallery, Chitnavis Center, Nagpur, Maharashtra
2016 89th Annual All India Art Exhibition and Competition by AIFACS, New Delhi
2016 Kalaa Spandan, National Art Festival by Lalitya Foundation at Nehru Centre, Worli, Mumbai
2016 82nd Annual All India Exhibition of Arts by The Indian Academy of Fine Arts, Amritsar, Punjab
2016 6th India Art Festival Exhibition by Studio 3, Nehru Centre, Worli, Mumbai
2016 All India Exhibition by Lalitya Foundation at Rangayan Gallery, Chitnavis Center, Nagpur
2015 88th Annual All India Art Exhibition and Competition by AIFACS, New Delhi
2015 All India Art Exhibition at Benquest Hall Gallery, Omaxe Mall, Patiala, Punjab
2015 National Level Show at Karnataka Chitrakala Parishath, Bangalore , Karnataka
2015 Agnipath All India Art Competition and Exhibition at Artizen 2 Gallery, New Delhi
2014 National Level Show at Chaturdik Art Gallery, Jawahar kala Kendra, Jaipur – Rajasthan
2014 National Level Show at Lalit kala Akademi (R.C), Lucknow – Uttar Pradesh
2006 114th All India Art Exhibition, The Bombay Art Society at Jehangir Art Gallery, Mumbai
2006 2nd Agnipath All India Art Competition and Exhibition at Travancore Art Gallery, New Delhi
2005 Art Exhibition organized by Birla Academy of Art & Culture at Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi

Group Exhibitions :

2020 Online Show at Artland Gallery, Mumbai
2019 Charity Art Show – Cancer Society Foundation, Pune
2019 Group Show at AIFACS Art Gallery, New Delhi
2019 Seems Presents- a group Show at Vivanta by Taj, Dwarka, New Delhi
2019 Sanskruti Presents – a Group Show at Kala Academy, Goa
2018 Kamalnayan Bajaj art Gallery, Bajaj Bhavan, Mumbai
2018 Group Show at Cymroza art Gallery, Mumbai
2018 Charity Art Show – Cancer Society Foundation, Pune
2018 Seems Presents- a group Show at Open Palm Court Gallery, New Delhi
2018 Ampas Art Gallery, Sultanpur, New Delhi
2018 ‘Elegancy of Colors’ at Visual art Gallery, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi
2018 Seems Presents- a group Show at Vivanta by Taj, Dwarka, New Delhi
2018 ‘Charity Art Show’ Curated by Tulika Art Gallery, at Kamalnayan Bajaj art Gallery, Mumbai
2017 Seems Presents- a group Show at Visual art Gallery, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi
2017 J.S Art Gallery, Aundh opp. Sarja Hotel, Pune
2017 Taj Art Gallery, Taj Hotel, organized by Artland Gallery, Mumbai
2016 Taj Art Gallery, Taj Hotel, organized by Artland Gallery, Mumbai
2016 ‘Colours’ by Artland Gallery at Coomarswamy Hall – Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai
2016 Monsoon Show at Artland Gallery, Mumbai
2016 Darbar Art Gallery, Kochi, Kerala
2016 Organized by Artland Gallery at Coomarswamy Hall – Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai
2015 India’s Famous Artists by Elegancy of Colors at Lalitkala Akademi, New Delhi
2015 6th Edition of The Lexicon Art Show at Moments Mall, Kirti Nagar, New Delhi
2015 “Prayas” at Chemould Art Gallery, Kolkata
2015 Chitrakoot Art Gallery, Kolkata
2015 Birla Academy of Art & Culture, Kolkata
2015 ‘Agnipath’ at Artizen 2 Gallery, Pyare Lal Bhawan, New Delhi
2014 Nandalal Bose Art Gallery, (ICCR), Kolkata
2014 Gallery Gold, Abdul Rasul Avenue, Kolkata
2014 AIFACS Art Gallery, New Delhi
2014 “Prayas” at Chemould Art Gallery, Kolkata
2013 Nehru Centre Art Gallery (A.C), Mumbai
2013 Academy of Fine Arts, Kolkata
2013 “Prayas” at Chemould Art Gallery, Kolkata
2013 State Gallery of Fine Arts, Hyderabad
2013 The Art Entrance Gallery, Mumbai
2013 Coomarswamy Hall – Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai

2012 Lalit kala Akademi (National Academy of Art), New Delhi 

2012 Coomarswamy Hall – Prince of Wales Museum, Mumbai
2012 Aks Art Gallery, Andheri, Mumbai
2012 AIFACS Art Gallery, New Delhi
2012 Academy of Fine Arts, Kolkata
2011 Chemould Art Gallery, Kolkata
2011 R.R.S.B. Gallery, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh
2010 Birla Academy of Art & Culture, Kolkata
2010 Nehru Centre Art Gallery, Bhilai , Chhattisgarh
2010 Annual show at Town Hall, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh
2009 Saral Art Gallery, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
2008 Museum Art Gallery,Kalaghoda, Mumbai
2007 The Artists’ Centre art gallery, Mumbai
2006 2nd ‘Agnipath’ at Travancore Art Gallery, New Delhi
2006 Chemould Art Gallery, Kolkata
2006 Members art exhibition at The Artists’ Centre art gallery, Mumbai
2006 The Art Entrance Gallery, Mumbai
2005 Academy of Fine Arts, Kolkata
2004 Members art exhibition at The Artists’ Centre art gallery, Mumbai
2004 Ramkinkar Baije Art Gallery, Malda, West Bengal
2002 Group Art Exhibition at Belghoria Utsav, Kolkata
2005 Open-Air Group Art Exhibition at Manikchak, Malda, West Bengal

Participations and Exhibitions :

2016 13th Chitra Santhe organized by Karnataka Chitrakala Parishath, Bangalore
2008 Ghar Ghar Me Tiranga organized by Cartoon Watch, Raipur, Chhattisgarh
2007 ‘Pented Delights’ Presents Birla Academy of Art & Culture, Kolkata
2007,05,03 West Bengal Govt. Annual Art Exhibition, Information Centre, Kolkata
2006,04 Annual Art Exhibition at Artists’ Centre, Mumbai
2000 Annual Art Exhibition at Indian Society of Oriental Art, Kolkata.
2002-99 Annual Art Exhibition at Govt. College of Art & Craft, Kolkata

International & National Art Camps and Workshops :

2020 Acrylic Paintings on Canvas Workshop and Art Camp, organized by National Art Academy, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh
2019 Oil & Acrylic Paintings on Canvas Workshop and Art Camp, organized by National Art Academy, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh (April).
2018 Acrylic Paintings on Canvas Workshop and Art Camp, organized by National Art Academy, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh
2017 Acrylic Paintings on Canvas Workshop and Art Camp, organized by National Art Academy, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh
2016 Acrylic Paintings on Canvas Workshop organized by National Art Academy, Raigarh Chhattisgarh
2016 International Workshop organized by SMD Foundation in Indian Embassy, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E
2015 6th Lalitya National Art Camp, Nagpur, Maharashtra
2015 International Cultural Integration Art Camp organized by SMD Foundation in Bangkok, Thailand
2015 Oil & Acrylic Paintings on Canvas Workshop organized by National Art Academy, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh
2014 5th Lalitya National Art Camp, Nagpur, Maharashtra
2014 Acrylic Paintings on Canvas Workshop organized by National Art Academy, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh
2013 Acrylic Paintings on Canvas Workshop organized by National Art Academy, Raigarh , Chhattisgarh
2011 Acrylic Paintings on Canvas Workshop organized by National Art Academy, Raigarh , Chhattisgarh
2005 Conducted Workshop by Camel at Manikchak Block Information Centre, Malda, West Bengal
2004 Conducted Workshop by Col-man at Ramkinkar Baij Art Gallery, Malda, West Bengal

International and National Level Awards, Certificates, Mementos & Medals :

2019 Dr. Shyamnath Varma Award and Honored as an Eminent Artist – Memento & Certificate , (Recognition of outstanding Success in Painting ) by Nikhil Bharat Banga Sahitya Sammelan at Malda, West Bengal
2019 International Artist Gallery Grand Award for Solo Show by Art Revolution Taipei, Taiwan
2018 Certificate of Participation – 1st International Watercolor Biennale in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
2017 Chaain Shilpi Ratna Award – Memento & Certificate , (Recognition of outstanding Success in Painting ) from Malda, West Bengal
2015 Art Awards – Memento & Certificate, AlI India Art Exhibition, Omaxe Mall, Patiala, Punjab
2015 Gold Medal Award & Certificate – (National Level) from Agnipath, New Delhi.
2014 4th Award in 5th Lalitya National Art Camp and Competition, Nagpur, Maharashtra
2011 Special Award from Yuva Kalakar Samiti, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh
2010 Kalabhushan Award – National Art Teacher Award from Kalabharti Child Art Development Institute, Pune, Maharashtra
2009 Certificate of Honour from Navneet Drawing Competition, Mumbai, Maharashtra
2009 Art & Culture Merit Certificate – National Art Teacher Award from Devbhoomi Himachal International Painting Competition, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh Government.
2009 Mega Kala Bhushan Award- National Art Teacher Award- 1st Position, (Pride of India) from Kala Sarthi Art Foundation, Ahmedabad, Gujarat .
2008 Cash Award & Certificate from State Level Painting Competition organized by Cartoon Watch, Raipur, Chhattisgarh.
2008 Nehru Yuva Kendra,Govt. of India – Cash Award and Certificate, Malda, West Bengal
2006 Silver Medal Award & Certificate – (National Level) from Agnipath, New Delhi.
2003 “College Award” from Government College of Art & Craft, Kolkata, West Bengal
2000 Sports & Youth Development Division by West Bengal Govt.- Certificate in Poster.
1999 Sports & Youth Development Division by West Bengal Govt.- Certificate in Painting.

Seminars, Demo and Presentation :

2016 – International Seminar and Presentation organized by SMD Foundation at auditorium in Indian Embassy, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E
2015 – Demo of Acrylic and Oil Painting at Lalitya Foundation, Nagpur, Maharashtra
2015 – International Seminar organized by SMD Foundation at auditorium in Indian Council for Cultural Relation in Bangkok, Thailand.
2014 – Demo of Acrylic Painting at Lalitya Foundation, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2004 Demo and Presentation by Col-man at Ramkinkar Baij Art Gallery, Malda, West Bengal

Seminars, Demo and Presentation :

2016 – International Seminar and Presentation organized by SMD Foundation at auditorium in Indian
Embassy, Abu Dhabi, U.A.E
2015 – Demo of Acrylic and Oil Painting at Lalitya Foundation, Nagpur, Maharashtra
2015 – International Seminar organized by SMD Foundation at auditorium in Indian Council for Cultural
Relation in Bangkok, Thailand.
2014 – Demo of Acrylic Painting at Lalitya Foundation, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2004 Demo and Presentation by Col-man at Ramkinkar Baij Art Gallery, Malda, West Bengal

Media Coverage :

(A) Electronics Media ( News Coverage – English, Hindi, Marathi and Bengali ) :

 

DD- National (3 Times), DD-News, DD – Sahyadri (4 Times), Aaj Tak, Z- News, Sony-Max, ABP- News, India T.V, IBN-7, ND-TV, India News, News X, Zoom (Many Times), Sahara Samay (2 Times), Z-
Music, E-T.V (Bengali- 3 Times, Hindi, Marathi), Z- 24 Ghanta (2 Times), Star Ananda (ABP), Akash Bangla- (2 Times), Kolkata T.V, Tara Newz, Bansal News, Z – 24 MCG, IBC – 24, Sabar Khabar (Malda), All India Radio (3 Times) – New Delhi etc.

(B) Print Media (Art Reviews – English, Hindi, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Telugu, Kannada and
Urdu ) :
The Times of India, The Hindustan Times, The Hindu, Deccan Herald, The Asian Age, The Statesman – English, The Telegraph, Millennium Post, The Echo of India, The Indian Express, Free Press Journal, DNA, Mid- day, Afternoon, Bombay Times, The Hitavada, Central Chronicle, Art Affairs – Indian Art Newspaper, Color Canvas, Pravat Khabar, Janpath Samachar, Saamana, Bombay Samachar, Loksatta, The Inquilab, Hamara Mahanagar, Mumbai Chauffer, Tarun Bharat, Mumbai Tarun Bharat,
Janmabhoomi, Dainik Jagaran, Dainik Lokmat, Mahanagar, Prahar, Mi Marathi, Sakal, Divya Bhaskar, N.B.T- Navbharat Times, Navabharat- Raigarh, Dainik Bhaskar, Ispat Times, Patrika, Deshbandhu, Krantikari Sanket, Daily Chhattisgarh, Page-9, Jankarm, Amrit Sandesh, Raigarh Sandesh, Sandhya Dainik Bayar, Pratidin Rajdhani, Kelo Prava, Naidunia, Haribhoomi, Dainik Kushagrata, Navin Kadam, Kiran Doot, Moomal Art News, Ananda Bazar Patrika, Aajkal, Sanbad Pratidin, Ganashakti, Dainik Statesman – Bengali, Swabhumi, Akpakhya, Uttarbanga Sangbad, Maldaha Samachar, Gour Malda Sanbad, Rupantarer Pathe, Uttara path, Aamader Malda, Gour Bhumi, Gour Kantha, Gour Darpan, Eenadu – Telugu News, Kannada Prabha, – etc.

Publications – National and International (Art Reviews – English, Hindi, Bengali ) :

26. Delhi Diary – English Magazine, New Delhi – (April 1 – 15) – 2019
25. Navothan – Hindi Magazine, Noida – September, 2018
24. Out Look – English Magazine, New Delhi – 3 September, 2018
23. Dailyhunt – English Magazine – online, New Delhi – 3 September, 2018
22. Delhi Diary – English Magazine, New Delhi – (September 15 – 30) – 2018
21. Al Da Beatz Magazine, Allahabad, UP – online, 29th March – 2018
20. Indian Creative Minds – An International English Magazine of the Arts, New Delhi – ( October ) – 2017
19. Art Soul Life – English Art Magazine, New Delhi / Noida – (Aug. – Oct) – 2017
18. The Caravan – English Magazine, New Delhi – (August) – 2017
17. Delhi Diary – English Magazine, New Delhi – (August 16 – 31) – 2017
16. Time Out – English Magazine,(Art & Culture), Abu Dhabi / Dubai – (January 13 – 19 ) – 2016
15. Indian Creative Minds – An International English Magazine of the Arts, New Delhi -(July, Nov.)- 2015
14. Delhi Diary – English Magazine, New Delhi – (April 1 – 15 and Sept 1 – 15) – 2015
13. Global Fashion Street Magazine, New Delhi, online – 24th September, 2015
12. Society Interiors – An International English Magazine, New Delhi – (March) – 2015
11. Woman’s Era – An International English Magazine, New Delhi – (March-First) – 2015
10. Art family an International Research Journal of Art and aesthetics – English, New Delhi – Dec. – 2014
9. Delhi Diary – English Magazine, New Delhi – (November 16 – 30) – 2014
8. Woman’s Era – An International English Magazine, New Delhi – (May-First) – 2014
7. Art News, Monthly News Letter – English, All India Fine Arts and Craft Society, New Delhi – April – 2014
6. Art family an International Research Journal of Art and aesthetics – English, Editor- Mr. S.A. Jafar, New Delhi in – 2013, 2012
5. Nabajanma Patrika – Bengali, Editor and Art Critic – Mr. Kankan Nandi, Siliguri, West Bengal in – 2013,12,10,07,06
4. Swabhumi Ghare Baire – Daily Mag. – Bengali, Art Critic – Mr. Dheeman Bandhyopadhyay, Kolkata – 28th Sep – 2013
3. Monobhumi Patrika – Bengali, Editor & Writer – Mr. Amar Chandra Karmakar, Malda, West Bengal in – 2015, 2010
2. Gour Malda Sanbad- Sharadiya Patrika – Bengali, Editor and Journalist – Mr. Abhijit Choudhury, Malda, West Bengal in – 2007, 06, 05
1. Sannidhya Patrika – Bengali, Malda , West Bengal in – 2005

Membership :

1) The Bombay Art Society, Mumbai (Life Member) 2) Artists’ Centre, Mumbai (Life Member)
3) Lalitya Foundation, Nagpur (Life Member)

Foreign Visits and Exhibitions: Singapore, Bangkok – Thailand, Abu Dhabi, Dubai – UAE, Bangladesh.

Painting Collections: In India and Abroad

(1) Private Painting Collection in Belgium (2) Paintings etc Gallery in Singapore (3) Collector – Ms. Anne Harie Krokedal, Norway (4) Collector – Ms. Barbara Franci, Italy (5) Collector – Mrs. L. Maitra, UK, London (6) Get Art Museum – Taipei, Taiwan (7) Many Private Painting Collection in Taiwan (8) Private Painting Collection in Bangkok, Thailand (9) Private Painting Collection in China (10) Collector – Mr. Kaushik Basu, Senior Vice President and Chief Economist, The World Bank, Washington, USA, (11) Mr. & Mrs. Chandrani Ghosh, Washington, USA (12) Private Painting Collection in Los Angeles, USA (13) Collector – Mr. Ajit Mehra, Dubai – UAE, (14) Art Lovers – Ms. Tia Singh Khanna and Mr. Sumer Singh, Dubai – UAE, (15) Art Lover – Honorable Sir – Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Lebedev , Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Russia (16) Private Painting Collection in Australia (17) Collector – Mrs. Mehta, Belgium (18) Private Painting Collection in Keniya, Country in East Africa (19) Collector – Ms. Naina and Mr. Daniel , New York, USA (20) Mr. Arijit Sen, Dubai, UAE (21) Ms. Madhuri Dixit (Bollywood Actor), Mumbai (22) Mr. Bhaichung Bhutia (Indian Footballer) – Sikkim (23) Private Painting Collection in New Delhi (24) Collector – Mr. Prann Sharma, New Delhi (25) Mr. Rana Kapoor, Managing Director & CEO, Yes Bank, Mumbai (26) Mr. N.K. Munshi, Ex. Special Executive Magistrate, Mumbai (27) Mr. Sourav Ghosh, Lawyer, Partner of Jalan & Co., Solicitors, Kolkata (28) Collector – Mr. Santhosh sir, Bangalore (29) Art Pilgrim Gallery, Gurgaon (30) Rang Art Gallery, New Delhi (31) Krisala Arts Gallery, Bangalore (32) Collector – Mr. Milind V. Sathe, India Art Gallery, Pune (33) Rhythm Art Gallery, Mumbai (34) Image Gallery – Mumbai (35) Collection – Taj Bengal Hotel, Kolkata (36) Mr. Amit Goela, Mumbai (37) Paintings Collection in Jindal Steel & Power Ltd, (OPJS), Chhattisgarh (38) Mr. Aditya Vikram, Mumbai (39) Mr. and Mrs. Abrol, Mumbai (40) Woman’s Era – An International English Magazine, New Delhi (41) Art Lover – Mr. Prasad Pimprikar, Nagpur, (42) Mr. Sanjay Sareen, New Delhi, (43) Mrs. Rohini Sawhney, New Delhi (44) Mr. Partho and Mrs. Shukla Banerjee, Gurgaon (45) Mrs. Sonia Shashikanth, New Delhi (46) Mr. Prasant Sharma, Businessman, Kolkata (47) Ms. Sapna Malhotra, Mumbai, (48) Art Lover – Cap. N.G. Datta, Bangalore (49) Ms. Chitra Iyengar, Bangalore (50) Collector – Mr. Vijay Agarwal, Mumbai (51) Ms. Rumjhum Chatterjee, Gurgaon (52) Ms. Rita Kumar , New Delhi (53) Art Collector- Mr. Vinod Jaiswal – Kolkata (54) Many Private Painting Collections in Mumbai (55) Many Private Painting Collections also in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Noida, Nagpur, Pune, Gujarat, Shimla- Himachal Pradesh, Raigarh – Chhattisgarh, Malda- West Bengal and Abroad.

Job Profile :

Worked as an Art Teacher at O.P. Jindal School (CBSE), Raigarh, Chhattisgarh, India, from 24th March 2008 to 29th Feb. 2012.

 

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